Lean adipose tissue is characterized by an enrichment of anti-inflammatory immune cells whose phenotype is driven by metabolic changes induced by the adipose microenvironment. Adipose tissue lipids bind to PPARg in regulatory T cells and alternatively activated (anti-inflammatory) macrophages and promote a regulatory program associated with oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Overfeeding […]
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The immune system in adipose tissue is largely under-appreciated, yet adipose tissue contains an incredibly unique and substantial immune system. Adipose tissue covers much of the body, and can account for 50% of body mass in obesity. Each adipose depot in humans and mice has its own substantial immune system with collectively more lymphocytes than […]
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally. At least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, the biggest burden being obesity-related diseases. It is now clear that inflammation, particularly in adipose tissue itself, interferes with insulin signaling and is an underlying cause or contributor to many of these diseases, […]
S. Boulenouar , X. Michelet, D. Duquette, D. Alvarez , A.E. Hogan, C. Dold , D. O’Connor, S. Stutte, A. Tavakkoli, D. Winters, M.A. Exley, D. O’Shea, M.B. Brenner, U. von Andrian, and L. Lynch. Adipose type one innate lymphoid cells regulate macrophage homeostasis through targeted cytotoxicity. (2017) Immunity 21, 46:273-286. | PubMed
L. Lynch, A.E. Hogan, D. Duquette, C. Lester, A. Banks, K. LeClair, D. Cohen, A. Ghosh, B. Lu, M. Corrigan, D. Stevanovic, E. Maratos-Flier, D. Drucker, D. O’Shea, and M.B. Brenner. iNKT cells induce FGF21 for thermogenesis and are required for maximal weight loss in GLP1 therapy. Cell Metabolism, 2016; 24(3):510-519. | PubMed
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) residing in adipose tissue participate in the pathogenesis of obesity, but their contribution toward adipose tissue homeostasis in the lean state is unclear. Boulenouar et al. (2017) now report that heterogenous type 1 ILCs in adipose tissues regulate macrophage homeostasis through cytotoxicity. Click here to view article in Cell. Click here to download.
A. Kohngruber, N. La Marche, and L. Lynch. Adipose Tissue at the nexus of immunometabolism. Seminars in Immunology. 2016: 28(5):431-440.| PubMed
L. Lynch, X. Michelet, S. Zhang, P.J. Brennan, A. Moseman, C. Lester, G. Besra, E.E. Vomhof-Dekrey, M. Tighe, H.F. Koay, D.I. Godfrey, E.A. Leadbetter, D.B. Sant’Angelo, U. von Andrian, and M.B. Brenner. Regulatory iNKT cells lack expression of the transcription factor PLZF and control the homeostasis of T(reg) cells and macrophages in adipose tissue. Nature […]
E. Carolan, L.M. Tobin, B.A. Mangan, M.A. Corrigan, G. Gaoatswe, G. Byrne, J. Geoghegan, D. Cody, J. O’Connell, D.C. Winter, D.G. Doherty, L. Lynch, D. O’Shea, and A.E. Hogan. Altered distribution and increased IL-17 production by mucosal-associated invariant T cells in adult and childhood obesity. J Immunol, 2015;194(12):5775-5780. | PubMed
A. Kohngruber, and L. Lynch. Adipose Tissue Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes. Current Diabetes Reports, 2015:15(11):92. | PubMed